Introduction to the Western Qiang Nationality

Xiqiang, from Sanmiao, is another branch of the Jiang nationality. After three generations, it lived between Hexi, Zhizhi and Huanghe rivers. During the Warring States Period, the Qiang nationality flourished, including the middle species of castor (Yue Anqiang), the white horse (Guanghan Qiang) and the improved species (Wujun Qiang) and so on. The Western Han Dynasty was founded in 206 B.C. At that time, the Qiang people who entered the Central Plains had basically merged into the Han nationality. The Qiang people who did not enter the Central Plains, except for some of them living in Longxi, were mostly scattered to the west of the Great Wall, especially in the Hehuang area.

There are many Xiqiang tribes, most of which are named after animals, such as white horse, yak, ginseng wolf, yellow hair and yellow sheep, which may be a relic of totem worship. Some are named by place names, such as Sister Le and Bi. This group may have entered a geopolitical alliance. The stronger Xian Ze and Jiao Dang Qiang took the paternal name as their name, showing the paternal clan's paternal-son joint name system.

Generally speaking, the Northwest Qiang Dynasty, first Zero, Lejie, Dangjian, Dangtang, fencing, Lao Jie, Yi Jie, Bipu, Uwu, Zhongcun, Gongtang, Qianqiang, Fu Nan and other species in Longxi, Jincheng and outside the fortress. None of them, Shen Di and some of them are in Shangjun (now Suide County, Shaanxi Province). The pious people and part of Beipu are located in Xihe County (near Hequ County, Shaanxi Province today). Each ministry has its own chieftain, who has attacked, killed and plundered several times and has suffered frequent wars.

Among the Qiang Dynasty, the first zero is the strongest. They live in Dayu Valley (now between Guide and Jianza counties in Qinghai). The water and grass are rich and the natural conditions are comparatively superior. The outward use of troops on the Han-Dynasty border was weakened by the internal annexation and was defeated by the burning of the emperor and the Qiang Dynasty, and gradually weakened.

The legend of Burning Dang Qiang is the descendant of the thirteenth generation of Yan, who originally lived in Dayuan Valley (now Guidexi, Qinghai). The number of people was small and weak, and then defeated Shini and Beipu Qiang. After moving to Dayu, they became stronger and stronger. In addition, Zhong Qiang is also very strong, known as 100,000 troops. As for the other ministries of the Qiang Dynasty, there are more than ten thousand people in the big and thousands in the small, and they are very active for a time.

In the Han Dynasty, these Qiang tribes were subordinate to the Huns. During the reign of Emperor Jingdi of the Han Dynasty, the descendants of a research group of the Qiang Nationality asked for attachment, which was the guard of Longxi Fortress of the Han Dynasty. Emperor Jingdi of the Han Dynasty welcomed the arrival from afar and moved Liuhe and his researching Qiang tribes to Longxi County. They were arranged to live together with Han people in five counties of Didao (Lintao, Gansu Province), Angu (Lintao, Gansu Province), Lintao (Minxian County, Gansu Province), Didao (southeast of Wushan County, Gansu Province), Qiang Dao (Zhouqu North, Gansu Province) to defend the northwest frontier defense.

By the time of Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty, the Huns were subjected to fierce military operations, and the Qiang people who collaborated with the Huns were also hit.

Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty ordered the use of troops in Hexi, and the Huns suffered a heavy blow. The surrender of Hunxie King and Xiutu King resulted in direct contact between the Qiang people and the Han Dynasty.

When Emperor Wudi sent troops to expel Huns from Hexi, he also exerted military pressure on the Qiang and forced them to move westward. Because of the descent of Hun's evil king and the westward migration of the Qiang, the Hexi area became a vacuum.

After Emperor Wudi's plan to call Wusun back to Hexi failed, he established Wuwei County and Jiuquan County successively in order to strengthen the border defense in Hexi area. Henceforth, the Hexi area became the territory of the Han Dynasty. Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty also continuously recruited people and transported criminals to Hexi to reclaim wasteland and develop production. This created favorable conditions for opening up the Western Regions and continuing to fight against the Huns.

After Emperor Wudi set up prefectures and counties in Hexi, Xiqiang and Northern Hun were cut off from the north and the south, so they could not communicate with each other. Thus, it was very difficult for them to collude with each other in dealing with the Han Dynasty.

In September of the fifth year of Yuan Ding (112 B.C.), the Zero Qiang and the feudal jail sister species Qiang distributed in the west of Linxia in Gansu Province and northeast of Qinghai Province released their former enemies and formed an alliance. They once again joined forces with the Huns and attacked Lingju County (now northwest of Yongdeng in Gansu Province) and Angu County in the Han Dynasty. They surrounded Guhan County (now northeast of Linxia in Gansu Province), and the border was in urgent need.

Emperor Wudi sent generals Li Xie and Lang Zhongling Xu to lead 100,000 troops. In October of the sixth year of Yuan Ding (111 B.C.), they sent troops to fight. After a tough military campaign, the siege of rare guns was unlocked. In October of the sixth year of Yuan Ding (111 B.C.), the Han army put down the rebellion of Zhuqiang.

In order to strengthen the management and surveillance of the Qiang people, Emperor Wudi of Han Dynasty began to set up guard school captains in the areas inhabited by the Qiang people in 111 B.C. to command the Qiang tribes attached to the Han Dynasty. Since then, the eastern part of Qinghai has become the administrative region of our country.

After the attack of Emperor Wudi of Han Dynasty, Zero Qiang migrated to Xihai and Yanchi areas. Emperor Wudi of Han Dynasty gradually migrated to enrich the empty land of Hexi. Later, in the sixth year of Emperor Zhaodi of the Han Dynasty (80 BC), Jincheng County was set up, which was governed by Yunwu (now northwest of Yongjing, Gansu Province), and the territory of the former guard Qiang school lieutenant was all owned by Jincheng County.


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